ls - List directory contents


ls [ options ] directory


Ls lists the files in one or more directories. If no directory is given, files in the current working directory are shown. Without options, ls displays the filenames in a directory in five columns, sorted alphabetically.

Ls takes a variety of options:


displays all files in the directory, including the “hidden” files.


displays a “long” directory, showing file information for each filename.


total 4 for 821 bytes -rw- txt 258 13-aug-85 23:11 dead.letter drw- dir 512 19-aug-85 00:42 letters -rw- txt 33 14-aug-85 20:46 patch -rwx cmd 18 12-aug-85 16:43 login
The first line shows the number of files within the directory and the amount of space (in bytes) occupied by them. For each line of file information:

-rwx cmd 18 12-aug-85 16:43 login | | | | | | | | | name of file | | | | | | | date file was last modified | | | | | size of file (in bytes) | | | file type | d--- indicates a directory -r-- file can be read by owner --w- file can be written to by owner ---x file can be executed by owner


reports the number of files in the specified directory.


causes a long directory to express all size values in 512 byte blocks, instead of bytes.


marks subdirectory files with a trailing ‘/’, and executable files with a trailing ‘*’.


displays a directory in standard ProDOS format (full display, all information). This option supersedes all others.


shows only invisible files (not available with the -l option).

In all forms except -p, ls supports output redirection to files. Example:

ls /heartbeat/city >file.list

This redirects the columnar output from ls on the /heartbeat/city directory into the file “file.list”.


“(more files exist than shown)” — Too many files exist in the directory and all their names could not be read into memory. If the ‘-p’ option is used, there is no file count limitation.

See Also

dstat(C), setfile(C)